References for the AAFP and the AAP

To assist the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American Academy of Pediatrics in making a balanced determination for their forthcoming position statements on circumcision, NOCIRC has sent each organization the following articles.



  1. Gairdner D. The fate of the foreskin. British Medical Journal 1949;2(4642):1433­7.
  2. Oster J. Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1968;43(228):200­3.
  3. Bazett HC, McGlone B, Williams RG, Lufkin HM. Sensation I. Depth, distribution and probable identification in the prepuce of sensory end­organs concerned in sensations of temperature and touch; thermometric conductivity. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 1932;27(3):489­517.
  4. Winkelmann RK. The cutaneous innervation of human newborn prepuce. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1956;26(1):53­67.
  5. Winkelmann RK. The erogenous zones: their nerve supply and its significance. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 1959;34(2):39­47.
  6. Halata Z, Munger BL. The neuroanatomical basis for the protopathic sensibility of the human glans. Brain Research 1986;371(2):205­30.
  7. Taylor JR, Lockwood AP, Taylor AJ. The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. British Journal of Urology 1996;77(2):291­5.

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  1. Circumcision of Male Infants. Guidance for Doctors. British Medical Association. September 1996.
  2. Position Statement. Routine Circumcision of Normal male Infants and Boys. The Australian College of Paediatrics. May 27, 1996.
  3. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. Neonatal circumcision revisited. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1996;154(6):769­80.
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. Religious exemptions from child abuse statutes. Pediatrics 1988; 81:169­71.
  5. Alderson, P. European charter of chidren's rights. Bulletin of Medical Ethics 1993;(October):13­15.
  6. Shield JPH, Baum JD. Children's consent to treatment. British Medical Journal 1994;308:1182­3.
  7. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. Informed Consent, Parental Permission, and Assent in Pediatric Practice. Pediatrics 1995; 95:314­17.
  8. AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn, AAP Committee on Drugs. Neonatal Anesthesia. Pediatrics 1987: 80:446.

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  1. Dean AL, Jr. Epithelioma of the penis in a jew who was circumcised in early infancy. Transactions of the American Association of Genito­Urinary Surgeons 1936;29:493­9.
  2. Paquin AJ Jr, Pearce JM. Carcinoma of the penis in a man circucmsied in infancy. Journal of Urology 1955;74(5):626­7.
  3. Marshall VF. Typical carcinoma of the penis in a male circumcised in infancy. Cancer 1953;6(5):1044­5.
  4. Reitman PH. An unusual case of penile carcinoma. Journal of Urology 1953;69(4):547­9.
  5. Amelar RD. Carcinoma of the penis due to trauma occurring in a male patient circumcised at birth. Journal of Urology 1956;75(4):728­9.
  6. Ledlie RCB, Smithers DW. Carcinoma of the penis in a man circucmised in infancy. Journal of Urology 1956;76(6):756­7.
  7. Kaufman JJ, Sternberg TH. Carcinoma of the penis in a circumcised man. Journal of Urology 1963;90(4):449­50.
  8. Reddy DG, Baruah IKSM. Carcinogenic action of human smegma. Archives of Pathology 1963;75(4):414­20.
  9. Melmed EP, Pyne JR. Carcinoma of the penis in a jew circumcised in infancy. British Journal of Surgery 1967;54(8):729­31.
  10. Girgis AS, Berman H, Rosenthal H, Solomon L. Unusual penile malignancies in circumcised jewish men. Journal of Urology 1973;110(6):696­702.
  11. Leiter E, Lefkovits AM. Circumcision and penile carcinoma. New York State Journal of Medicine 1975;75(9):1520­2.
  12. Wade TR, Kopf AW, Ackerman AB. Bowenoid papulosis of the penis. Cancer 1978;42(4):1890­1903.
  13. Boczko S, Freed S. Penile carcinoma in circumcised males. New York State Journal of Medicine 1979;79(12):1903­4.
  14. Onuigbo WIB. Carcinoma of skin of penis. British Journal of Urology 1985;57(4):465­6.
  15. Bissada NK, Morcos RR, El­Senoussi M. Post­circumcision carcinoma of the penis. I. clinical aspects. Journal of Urology 1986;135(2):283­5.
  16. Rogus BJ. Squamous cell carcinoma in a young circumcised man. Journal of Urology 1987 138(4):861­2.
  17. Hellberg D, Valentin J, Eklund T, Nilsson S. Penile cancer: is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behaviour? British Medical Journal 1987;295(6609):1306­8.
  18. Bissada NK. Post­circumcision carcinoma of the penis: II. surgical management. Journal of Surgical Oncology 1988;37(2):80­3.
  19. Maden C, Sherman KJ, Beckmann AM, Hislop TG, Teh C­Z, Ashley RL, Daling JR. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993;85(1):19­24.
  20. Denniston GC. Re: History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993;85(15):1251.
  21. Harish K; Ravi R. The role of tobacco in penile carcinoma. British Journal of Urology 1995;75(3):375­7.
  22. Cupp MR, Malek RS, Goellner JR, Smith RF, Espy MJ. The detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in intraepithelial, in situ, verrucous and invasive carcinoma of the penis. Journal of Urology 1995;154(3):1024­9.
  23. Fleiss PM. RE: The detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in intraepithelial, in situ, verrucous and invasive carcinoma of the penis. Journal of Urology 1996;155(6):2034­5.
  24. Van Howe R. RE: The detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in intraepithelial, in situ, verrucous and invasive carcinoma of the penis. Journal of Urology 1996;155(6):2035.
  25. Frisch M, Friis S, Kruger Kjaer S, Melbye M. Falling incidence of penis cancer in an uncircumcised population (Denmark 1943­1990) British Medical Journal 1995;311(7018):1471.
  26. Fleiss PM, Hodges F. Neonatal circumcision does not protect against penile cancer. British Medical Journal 1996;312(7033):779­80.
  27. Schoen EJ. Neonatal circumcision and penile cancer. British Medical Journal 1996;313(7048):46.
  28. Stanton A. Neonatal circumcision and penile cancer. British Medical Journal 1996;313(7048):47.
  29. Fleiss PM, Hodges F. Neonatal circumcision and penile cancer. British Medical Journal 1996;313(7048):46­7.

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  1. Denniston GC. Circumcision and the code of ethics. Humane Health Care International 1996:12.
  2. Warren JP, Bigelow J. The case against circumcision. British Journal of Sexual Medicine 1994;21(5):6­8.
  3. Fleiss PM. More on Circumcision. Clinical Pediatrics 1995;34(11):623­4.
  4. Warren JP, Smith PD, Dalton JD, et al. Circumcision of children. British Medical Journal 1996;312(7027):377.
  5. Szasz T. Routine neonatal circumcision: symbol of the birth of the therapeutic state. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1996;21(2):137­48.
  6. Ganiats TG, Humphrey JBC, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. Routine neonatal circumcsiion: a cost­utility analysis. Medical Decision Making 1991;11(4):282­93.
  7. Lawler FH, Bisonii RS, Holtgrave DR. Circumcision: a decision analysis of its medical value. Family Medicine 1991;23(8):587­93.
  8. Cadman D, Gafni A, McNamee J. Newborn Circumcision: an economic perspective. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1984;131(11):1353­5.

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  1. Gee WF, Ansell JS.Neonatal circumcision: a ten­year overview: with comparison of the gomco clamp and the plastibell device. Pediatrics 1976;58(6):824­7.
  2. Kaplan GW. Complications of circumcision. Urologic Clinics of North America 1983;10(3):543­9.
  3. Gearhart JP. Complications of pediatric circumcision. in: Urologic Complications: Medical and Surgical, Adult and Pediatric. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers. 1986. pp. 387­396.
  4. Gearhart JP, Rock JA. Total ablation of the penis after circumcision with electrocautery: a method of management and long­term followup. Journal of Urology 1989;142(3):799­9­801.
  5. Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. British Journal of Surgery 1993;80(10):1231­6.
  6. Staff Reporter. Child Awarded Damages. Leader Post Regina (November 1975).
  7. Lopo V. Family gets $2.75 Million in Wrongful Surgery Suit. Lake Charles American Press (May 28, 1986).
  8. Alex T. Death of Baby Puzzles Officials. Des Moines Register (November 13, 1982).
  9. Racher P. Bleeding Death to Grand Jury. Des Moines Register. (November 13, 1982).
  10. Staff Reporter. Circumcision Probed in Death. Des Moines Register (November 13, 1982).
  11. Racher P. Grand Jury to Probe Death of Baby after Circumcision. Des Moines Register (November 20, 1982): p. 3A.
  12. Seabrook C. Sex Change Should Give Circumcision Victim 'Near Normal' Life. Atlanta Constitution (September 21, 1985): pp. 1B.
  13. Staff Reporter. Surgical Mistake Leads to Lawsuit, Sex­Change Operation on Black Baby. Jet 1985;69(11):29 (November 25)
  14. Staff Reporter. Botched Circumcision Costs Atlanta Hospital $22.8 Million. Jet 1991;79(5):9 (April 1)
  15. Associated Press. Boy in Coma Most of his 6 Years Dies. The State (Columbia, South Carolina) (July 10, 1992): p. 5B.
  16. Rogers P, Wallace R. Infant Bleeds to Death after Being Circumcised. Miami Herald (June 26, 1993): pp. B1­B2.
  17. Lum L, SoRelle R. Boy's Autopsy Resulgs Expected: Five­Year­Old Lapsed into Coma Following Circumcision. Houston Chronicle (July 28, 1995): pp. 28A.
  18. Lum L, SoRelle R. Boy's Death to be Probed: Physician is Suspended. Houston Chronicle (July 29, 1995): p. 29A.

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  1. Zitter JM. Liability for medical malpractice in connection with performance of circumcision. American Law Review 1975;4:710­27.
  2. Brigman WE. Circumcision as child abuse: the legal and constitutional issues. Journal Of Family Law 1984­1985;23(3):337­57.
  3. Quigley A. Circumcise Warning to Parents. Herald Sun (March 13, 1996)

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  1. Brackbill Y. Continuous stimulation and arousal level in infancy: effects of stimulus intensity and stress. Child Development 1975;46(2):364­9.
  2. Gunnar MR, Fisch RO, Korsvik S, Donhowe JM. The effects of circumcision on serum cortisol and behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1981;6(3):269­75.
  3. Gunnar MR, Fisch RO, Malone S. The effects of a pacifying stimulus on behavioral and adrenocortical responses to circumcision in the newborn. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 1984;23(1):34­8.
  4. Wallerstein E. Is nonreligious circumcision necessary? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 1985;24(3):364­5.
  5. Gunnar MR, MaloneS, Vance G, Fisch RO. Coping with aversive stimulation in the neonatal period: quiet sleep and plasma cortisol levels during recovery from circumcision. Child Development 1985;56(4):824­34.
  6. Williamson PS, Evans ND. Neonatal cortisol response to circumcision with anesthesia. Clinical Pediatrics 1986;25(8):412­5.
  7. Anand KJS, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects In the human neonate and fetus. New England Journal of Medicine 1987;317(21):1321­9.
  8. Porter FL, Porges SW, Marshall RW. Newborn pain cries and vagal tone: parallel changes in response to circumcision. Child Development 1988;59(2):495­505.
  9. Taddio A, Goldbach M, Ipp M, Stevens B, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet 1995;345(8945):291­2.
  10. Fleiss PM. Circumcision. Lancet 1995;345(8954): 927.
  11. Warren J. Circumcision. Lancet 1995;345(8954): 927.
  12. Levy DM. Psychic trauma of operations in children. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1945;69:7­45.
  13. Kennedy H. Trauma in childhood. Signs and sequelae as seen in the analysis of an adolescent. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1986;41:209­19.
  14. Cansever G. Psychological effects of circumcision. British Journal of Medical Psychology 1965;38:321­31.
  15. Richards MPM, Bernal JF, Brackbill Y. Early behavioral differences: Gender of circumcision? Developmental Psychobiology 1976;9(1):89­95.
  16. Putthoff TD, Visconti JA, Tschampel MM. Use of Emla prior to circumcision. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1996;30(11):1327­30.

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  1. Rickwood AMK, Walke J. Is phimosis overdiagnosed in boys and are too many circumcisions performed in consequence? Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 1989;71(5):275­7.
  2. Dunn HP. Non­surgical management of phimosis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 1989;59(12):963.
  3. Jorgensen ET, Svensson A. The treatment of phimosis in boys, with a potent topical steroid (clobetasol propionate 0.05%) cream. Acta Dermato­Venereologica 1993;73(1):55­6.
  4. Cuckow PM, Rix G, Mouriquand PDE. Preputial plasty: a good alternative to circumcision. Journal of Pediatrics 1994;29(4):561­3.
  5. Dewan PA, Tieu CU, Chieng BS. Phimosis: is circumcision necessary? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1996;32(4):285­9.
  6. Cooper GG, Thompson GJL, Raine PAM. Therapeutic retraction of the foreskin in childhood. British Medical Journal 1984;286(6360):186­7.
  7. Griffiths DM, Freeman NV. Non­surgical separation of preputial adhesions Lancet 1984; 2(8398):344.
  8. Pfaff G, Bolkenius M. Hands off the prepuce. Lancet 1984;2(8407):874­5.
  9. MacKinlay GA. Save the prepuce. Painless separation of preputial adhesions in the outpatient clinic. British Medical Journal 1988;297(6648): 590­1.
  10. Wright JE. The treatment of childhood phimosis with topical steroid. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery. 1994;64(5):327­8.
  11. Griffiths D, Frank JD. Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1992;85(6):324­5.
  12. Catzel P. The normal foreskin in the young child. South African Journal of Medicine 1982;62(21):751.
  13. Collins M. Circumcision and hygiene. Medical Journal of Australia 1985;142(1):76.
  14. Jenner BM. Circumcision and hygiene. Medical Journal of Australia 1985;142(2):166.
  15. Kayaba H, Tamura H, Kitajima S, Fujiwara Y, Kato T, Kato T. Analysis of Shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. Journal of Urology 1996;156(5):1813­5.
  16. DeVries CR, Miller AK, Packer MG. Reduction of paraphimosis with hyaluronidase. Urology 1996;48(3):464­5.
  17. Globovic Z, Milanovic D, Vokadinovic V, Rakic I, Perovic S. The conservative treatment of phimosis in boys. British Journal of Urology 1996;78(5):786­8.

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  1. Fleiss PM. Explanation for false­positive urine cultures obtained by bag technique. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1995;149(9):1041­2.
  2. Gothefors L, Olling S, Winberg J. Breast Feeding and biological properties. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1975;64(6):807­812.
  3. Kaack MB, Roberts JA, Baskin G, Patterson GM. Maternal Immunization with P Fimbriae for the Prevention of neonatal Pyelonephritis. Infection and Immunity 1988;56(1):1­6.
  4. Winberg J, Bollgren I, Gothefors L, Herthelius M, Tuelus K. The prepuce: a mistake of nature? Lancet 1989;1(8638):598­9.
  5. Coppa GV, Gabrielli O, Giorgi P, Catassi C, Montanari MP, Varaldo PE, Nicholas BL. Preliminary study of breastfeeding and bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Lancet 1990;355(8689):569­71.
  6. Piscane A, Graziano L, Gregorio Z. Breastfeeding and urinary tract infection. Lancet 1990;336(8706):50.
  7. Marlid S, Jodal U, Hanson LA. Breastfeeding and urinary­tract infection. Lancet 1990;336(8720):942.
  8. Winberg J. Ask the expert: Is routine circumcision advised in boys with obstructive uropathy in order to prevent urinary tract infection? Pediatric Nephrology 1991;5(2):178.
  9. Pisacane A, Graziano L, Mazzaarella G, Scarpellino B, Zona G. Breast­feeding and urinary tract infection. Journal of Pediatrics 1992;120(1):87­9.
  10. Chessare JB. Circumcision: is the risk of urinary tract infection really the pivotal issue? Clinical Pediatrics 1992;31(2):100­4
  11. McCracken GH, Jr. Options in antimicrobial management of urinary tract infections in infants and children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1989;8(8):552­5.
  12. Siwek J. Circumcision: the debate continues. American Family Physician 1990;41(3):817.
  13. Altschul MS The circumcision controversy. American Family Physician 1990;41(3):817­8, 820.
  14. Dozor R. Routine neonatal circumcsion: boundary of ritual and science. American Family Physician 1990;41(3):820, 822, 824.
  15. Altschul MS. Larger numbers needed. Pediatrics 1987;80(5):763­4.

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  1. Smith GL, Greenup R, Takafuji ET. Circumcision as a risk factor for urethritis In racial groups. American Journal of Public Health 1987;77(4):452­4.
  2. Cook LS, Koutsky LA, Holmes KK. Clinical presentation of genital warts among circumcised and uncircumcised heterosexual men attending an urban STD clinic. Genitourinary Medicine 1993;69(4):262­4.
  3. Bassett I, Donovan B, Bodsworth NJ, Field PR, Ho DWT, Jeansson S, Cunningham AL. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of heterosexual men attending a sexual health centre. Medical Journal of Australia 994;160(11):697­700.
  4. Donovan B; Bassett I; Bodsworth NJ. Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting. Genitourinary Medicine 1994;70(5):317­20.
  5. Birley HDL, Walker MM, Luzzi, GA, et al. Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis; association with atopy and genital washing. Genitourinary Medicine 1993; 69(5):400­3.
  6. Allen S, Lindan C, SerufiliraA, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in urban Rwanda; demographic and behavioral correlates in a representative sample of childbearing women. Journal of the American Medical Association 1991;266(12):1657­63.
  7. Barongo LR, Borgdorff MW, Mosha FF, et al. The epidemiology of HIV­1 infection in urban areas, roadside settlements and rural villages in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. AIDS 1992;6(12):1521­8.
  8. De Vincenzi I, Mertens T. Male circumcision: a role in HIV prevention? AIDS 1994;8(2):153­60.
  9. Chao A, Bulterys M, Musanganire F, et al. Risk factors associated with HIV­1 infection among pregnant women in Rwanda. International Journal of Edpidemiology 1994;23(2):371­80.
  10. Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J, et al. A community trial of the impact of improved sexually transmitted disease treatment on the HIV epidemic in rural tanzania: 2. baseline survey results. AIDS 1995;9(8):927­34.
  11. Storm MR. AAFP fact sheet on neonatal circumcision: a need for updating. American Family Physician 1996;54(4):1216­7.

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